One plant group with the most species used as human food is the Cucurbitaceae family. Within this family, the genus Cucurbita stands out as one of the most important.
In spite of the current marginalization of some of these species, from very remote times all have contributed essential food products to the diet of rural and some urban communities on the American continent and in many other parts of the world.
There are many varieties of pumpkins in the world, but here are the most popular:
Varieties within this group often have bright yellow skin and hard, distinctly furrowed stems. However, the group also includes gourds, vegetable marrow, pattypan summer squash, zucchini and summer crookneck squash.
Members include: Vegetable spaghetti; Hull-less seeded (Naked seed) types; and Pie pumpkin.
According to archaeological recordings, C. pepo appears to be one of the first domesticated species. The oldest remains have been found in Mexico, in the Oaxaca valley (8750 BC to AD 700) and in the caves of Ocampo, Tamaulipas (7000 to 500 BC). Its presence in the United States also dates back a long time, as the recordings in Missouri (4000 BC) and Mississippi (1400 BC) indicate. This species may have been domesticated at least on two occasions and in two different regions: in Mexico and in the eastern United States, in each case having C. fraterna and C. texana, respectively, as possible progenitors.
Like the other cultivated species of the genus, the mature or young fruit and the seeds of C. pepo, as well as to a lesser extent the flowers and young tips of the stems, are eaten in many parts of its native distribution area and in other regions of the world. C. pepo's nutrient content is similar to that described for the other cultivated species.
Cucurbita spp. offer possible new uses or more intensive uses, which can be widely promoted. One is the preparation of purees or similar foods, for which there would be a very extensive genetic stock for determining organoleptic or nutritional characteristics, resulting in a product superior to the one existing on the markets and which is derived from other products.
With regard to traditional cultivars, it is common to see a fair representation in Bolkan Penisula, specially in Bulgaria.
Also known as Cucurbita argyrosperma or Huber. These are generally the big pumkins.
According to the age of the archaeological remains discovered thus far, it has been suggested that domestication of C. argyrosperma must have occurred in southern Mexico more than 7000 years ago.
The characteristics that were most transformed in the process of domestication of the ssp. argyrosperma were, as in other crops, mainly those connected with handling and preferred uses.
The different degrees of variation in the nutritionally important parts of the three cultivated varieties of the complex argyrosperma suggest a strong association with human interests. The relatively large seed size of the var. argyrosperma indicates that it was mainly selected to obtain seeds. while the great diversity of shapes, colours and size of the fruits and seeds of var. stenosperma and callicarpa indicate that selection had a double aim: to obtain flesh as well as seeds.
It was thought that C. moschata, like Cucurbita ficifolia, was of Asiatic origin. However, it is now evident that it was domesticated in Latin America, although it is still unclear what the precise area of domestication of either species was. On numerous occasions, it has been reported to be in Mesoamerica and on other occasions in South America, more specifically with its centre of origin in Colombia. The vestiges available are undoubtedly difficult to interpret. The oldest archaeological remains of this species were found in northwestern Mexico (the caves of Ocampo, Tamaulipas) and date from 4900 to 3500 BC. Remains are also known in northern Belize, in Tikal, Guatemala (2000 BC to AD 850), and in Huaca Prieta, Peru (3000 BC).
Electrophoretic analysis of isoenzymes has not provided any substantial evidence. However, it has enabled us to reaffirm the strong relationship between this species and taxa of the C. argyrosperma group. Nor is the linguistic evidence very clear: C. moschata is known by native names both in the Mesoamerican region (mainly in Mexico) and in South America; this, on the other hand, supports the observation that both regions correspond to two centres of the crop's diversification.
In the greater part of C. moschata's native area, its flowers. young stems and young and ripe fruits are eaten as a vegetable. The latter are also commonly used to prepare sweets and as fodder. The seeds are eaten whole, roasted or toasted and are ground into different stews. They have high oil and protein contents (similar to those noted in C. argyrosperma) and their consumption in urban areas is also fairly common.
Juglans comes from the Latin words jovis and glans meaning nut of Jove. Regia means kingly, in reference to the superior quality of the nuts. Many cultivars of this species are available in commerce.
The climate in North-East Bulgaria is exceptionally favourable for growing the walnut tree. The most popular Bulgarian walnut is named “Silistrenski”, which comes from the territorial names of this area, where the tree is most founded.
Silistrenski is the variety of nut that ripens in the second ten days of September. Fetal weight is 12.4 g, the shell is medium thick, but easily breakable. Kernel is nourished with 51.5% fat and excellent taste. The tree is medium sized with good fertility. Inseminated by Dryanovski & Proslavski. The disadvantage of the variety is comparatively attractive appearance of the produce due corrugated shell.
Divine elixir miracle of nature - these definitions honey could hardly reconcile just two words all the benefits of a truly magical food. In the ancient East honey used not only for its nutritional qualities, but as a panacea. Today, scientists agree on the exceptional healing properties unique bee products: honey, pollen, propolis and propolis. Potent stimulator of the immune system, they protect the body from viral diseases, improve mental activity, regulate blood pressure, prevent leukemia. In addition to vitamins, enzymes, minerals, they contain essential amino acids that exceed five times those found in meat, eggs and cheese. Pure Bulgarian honey nectar has a lot of vitamins and multi-colored honey is a very good chemical analysis. The presence of these herbs that grow only on slopes of Bulgaria makes it one of the most valuable products in the world.
Bulgarian honey outperforms Europe. By European standards, the water content of honey is within 20% and BDS are 16-18%. Therefore Bulgarian honey is among the favorites in the world. Bulgarian honey is not only very useful but also healing. For example, cardiovascular disease respond well honey, beekeepers say Honey Coriander helps in asthma and copper thistle increases male potency and immune system.
Annual production in Bulgaria is between 6 and 12 thousand tons of honey.
Pumpkin seeds, also known as pepitas, are small, flat, green, edible seeds. Most pumpkin seeds are covered by a white husk, although some pumpkin varieties produce seeds without them. Pumpkin seeds are a popular snack that can be found hulled or semi-hulled at most grocery stores. However, roasting pumpkin seeds is a popular Halloween treat. Pumpkin seeds have many health benefits, as they are a good source of protein, zinc, and other vitamins, and they are even said to lower cholesterol. One gram of pumpkin seed protein contains as much tryptophan as a full glass of milk. Pumpkin seeds are a good source of magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and phytosterols.
Sunflower seeds are more commonly eaten as a healthy snack than as part of a meal. They can also be used as garnishes or ingredients in various recipes. The seeds may be sold as in-shell seeds or dehulled kernels. The seeds can also be sprouted and eaten in salads.
When in-shell seeds are processed, they are first dried. Afterwards, they may also be roasted or dusted with salt or flour for preservation of flavor. Dehulling is commonly performed by cracking the hull with one's teeth and spitting it out while keeping the kernel in the mouth and eating it.
Walnuts (Juglands regia) is an ancient fruit tree species that belongs to the family nut (Juglandaceae). Besides him, the country rarely seen other walnut (black, Manchu, California black etc..). The country of nuts is considered the Middle East and the Balkan Peninsula.
Global production was 1,144.5 million tons biggest producers are the U.S. and China (with over 250 thousand tons), followed by Iran (146 thousand tons), Turkey (120 thousand tons), Ukraine and Romania. In Bulgaria the production is about 20,000 tons.
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